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Biblical Glossary
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Biblical Glossary for AP Literature and Composition



1. Aaron- Aaron was Moses' older brother who helped the Hebrews out of Egypt. His descendants were priests and he was the first high priest of the Hebrews. The phrase "house of Aaron" became a generic phrase for the priestly caste in Israel.

2. The Mark of Cain- Cain and Abel were the first children of Adam and Eve. Cain killed his brother out of jealousy and was exiled by God to wandering a distant land for the rest of his life. The "mark of Cain" now implies a person's sinful nature.

3. Anathema- Defined as "one that is cursed or damned." The anathema in 1 Cor. 16:22 denotes that they who love not the Lord are rightly objects of loathing and execration to all holy beings.

4. Apostle- One of a group made up especially of the 12 disciples chosen by Jesus to preach the gospel. The title of apostle is also applied to others, who, though not of the number of the Twelve, yet were equal with them in office and dignity.

5. Ararat- Ararat was the name of a country on which Noah's Ark landed on one of its mountains (Mount Ararat). In this country there was supposedly a language spoken like no other. This language may be related to Georgian. When the Ararat kingdom ended, the people who occupied the country are descendents of the Armenians of today.

6. Ark of the Covenant- This ark was a chest that was made of the purest gold within and without. Within it was to be held the two tablets on which the Ten Commandments were written, Aaron's rod, and the golden pot of hidden mana. The ark was to be used as a weapon against Israel's enemies. Only the high priest could lay eyes on it once a year, on Yom Kippur. Location of the ark is unknown, but researchers have been working hard to try and uncover this lost piece of religious history.­

7. Armageddon- While exiled to the isle of Patmos, the apostle John was the recipient of a wondrous revelation from God concerning future events. And so, the name Revelation is given to his prophetic writings. One out of every twenty-five verses in the entire New Testament refers either to the Rapture or to Christ's second coming. Armageddon is the name of the battlefield on which the final war between good and evil will be fought out once and for all.  The word Armageddon has its roots in Hebrew; the word is translated to Har-Megiddo or Megiddon (mountains of Megiddo). Megiddo is located in the Jezreel Valley where many believe Armageddon, the final battle, will take place. The references m Rv 19 and 20 describe the final phases of the battle but are not described as "Armageddon" in the text. First, the Antichrist is born. An evil creature, presumably male and the enemy of Jesus. He's either Satan himself, or Satan's right-hand man. He assembles an army, while Christ holds his Second Coming and assembles an army of his own. The Anti-Christ, (with the False Prophet) will rule the whole world with an iron hand for years. He will extend total control over the political, religious and economic life of the entire world. One hundred forty four thousand (144,000) people will be miraculously preserved by the Lord Himself. The righteousness of those protected by God will be a thorn in the flesh of this world leader. He will be able to break the will of all others except them. He will be determined to destroy them. He will gather his leaders and armies together for this purpose. "And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army" (Revelation 19:19). . .out of the mouth of the beast and the mouth of the false prophet, For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles  which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. . .and he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon" (Revelation 16: 13, 14, and 16). This battle will be the end of the tribulation period. It is the final attack of the Anti-Christ against God and His people. The cup of God's wrath will be full at this time, and He will personally come to end the grues~me earthly reign of the beast and his system. After this battle Jesus will set up the Millennial (1000 years of peace) reign on earth. "And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge, and make war . . .And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. . .and he had on his vesture, and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS." This is Jesus coming with His church (Revelation 19:8), to end the reign of the beast and destroy his world system. "And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet... These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone"(Revelation 10:20).

8. The Tower of Babel- The building of the Tower of Babel and the Confusion of Tongues (languages) in ancient Babylon is mentioned rather briefly in Genesis. "Babel" is composed of two words, "baa" meaning "gate" and "el," meaning "god." Hence, "the gate of god.” A related word in Hebrew, "balal" means "confusion. The Tower of Babel, symbolized humanity in rebellion against God in their attempt to ascend to heaven. The Tower of Babel story has come to symbolize human sin. For the story of the Tower of Babel is not just the story of the origins of human languages, but the story of the origin of one of the two great Biblical cities, Babylon. The other great Biblical city is, of course, Jerusalem, each representing opposing streams in human history and standing in a different relationship to God. Babylon's origins are in a tower built to reach the heavens, Jerusalem is the city of peace in which the temple was built, the dwelling place of God's presence. Story begins: In Genesis we are told that there was only one language in the earth during the time of Noah and his relatives. By this we know that everyone could understand each other, no matter where they lived. Many generations after Noah, when the whole earth still spoke the same language, people traveled to a plain in the Middle East and settled there. The story begins in the land of Shinar where many of the people were living at that time. They decided among themselves to build a city and a tower which would reach unto heaven. By this they would become well-known throughout the earth. To build this tower they needed bricks and then slime to hold the bricks in place. However, in all their plans there was one important thing that they forgot, and that was to ask God's advice Then they said to one another, "Let's build a city and a tower, and let's make a name for ourselves, so we won't be scattered around the whole earth. "This decision was a direct refusal to obey God's command to go out and fill the earth. Also, the tower was designed for worshiping the sun, moon and stars. Mankind had chosen to worship God's creations instead of the Lord Himself. The Lord looked upon the city and tower which these people were building. He gathered the angels, and said, "Behold, the people are organizing as one group and since they all speak the same language, nothing they imagine to do will be held back from them. Let us go down and confuse their language, so that they cannot understand each other's speech." And the Lord mixed up their language, causing them to stop building the city and scattered them upon the face of the whole earth. Wherever these people went to live after God scattered them, their language became the language of the country. The name of that city became "Babel", which means confusion; because there the Lord multiplied language on the earth, causing people to scatter abroad.

9. Babylon - An ancient city in Mesopotamia; it was the capital of the Babylonian empire from 600 BC. In the Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted to mean confusion - a name related to the biblical story of The Tower of Babylon. Babylon housed the tower of Babylon (the citizens of Babylon built the tower in an attempt to raise themselves create a place for themselves In the heavens, the Lord is said to have created languages to "confuse" humans and prevent them from having no Impossibilities as well as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world The hanging Gardens of Babylon.

10. Balm in Gilead - The healing properties of the balm of Gilead were known throughout the world. The balm was described in olden days as being a "rare, fragrant, and intoxicating ointment." Its properties to heal wounds bordered on the miraculous, and its fragrance was like an aphrodisiac. It was extremely valuable and often used for trade. The caravans that carried Joseph to slavery in Egypt were loaded with the balm."The value of the balsam oil to the En Gedi community and the ancient world became obvious during the excavation. The tower where it had been distilled was so well fortified that the archaeologist directing the dig remarked, "This place was built like Fort Knox." In addition, the manufacturing or distilling process for the oil was a "trade secret," and the villagers of En Gedl were sworn to secrecy." (Just to give you an idea of how guarded and precious it was.)

11. Barabbas- Barabbas was a notorious robber whom Pilate (the Head Roman Official) proposed to condemn to death instead of Jesus, whom he wished to release, in accordance with the Roman custom. However, many of the Jewish leaders and their followers were so bent on the death of Jesus and believed him to be a common criminal. They demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned and Jesus condemned instead, thus Pilate followed their demands.

12. Bathsheba- Bathsheba was the name of one biblical woman. She was the daughter of Eliam and eventually became wife of Uriah the Hittite. David saw this woman bathing and sought her out through various messengers. Upon meeting, he committed adultery with her. In order to make things go his way David sent servants to slay Uriah so he could take Bathsheba as his wife. However, the child born in adultery died. After Uriah was slain, she was married to David and became the mother of Solomon. She thus took a prominent part in securing the succession of Solomon to the throne.

13. Beatitudes-

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Verse 3)

Blessed are the meek; for they shall posses the land. (Verse 4)

Blessed are they who mourn; for they shall be comforted. (Verse 5)

Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice; for they shall have their fill. (Verse 6)

Blessed are the merciful; for they shall obtain mercy. (Verse 7)

Blessed are the clean of heart; for they shall see God. (Verse 8)

Blessed are the peacemakers; for they shall be called the children of God. (Verse 9)

Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Verse 10)

Blessed are the people who don’t have much on earth in material worth will one day will be in the heaven. Blessed are the people who aren’t greedy and arrogant because they will one day obtain the land. Blessed are the people who have lost a loved one because God will comfort them. Blessed are the people who strive for justice for they will one day obtain it. Blessed are the people who have pity on others and are caring because they will one day receive the mercy in return. Blessed are the people who have a good heart and have faith for they are the people who will see God. Blessed are the pacifiers who don’t want violence for they are the true decedents of God. Blessed are the people who sacrifice themselves for the greater good of obtaining justice, for they will be rewarded with the kingdom of God.

14. Beelzebub- This figure is most commonly referred to as the Lord of the Flies. He was also the leader of the Canaanites; his people worshipped him with the symbol of the fly. He always referred to as an evil character. In some Biblical texts, he’s called the devil himself or a demon. His is described as having a horrific appearance with blood red eyes and in some cases a black misshaped body. In Solomon's Clavicules, Belzebuth appeared as an enormous calf or a goat with a long tail but with the face of a fly; Belzebuth appeared to Faust dressed like a bee and with two dreadful ears and his hair painted in all colors with a dragon's tail. The Marechal of Retz described him as a leopard; He breathed fire and howled like a wolf when angry. Sometimes Astaroth appears with him in the form of an ass. In the Testament of Solomon, Solomon learns that Beelzeboul is one of the fallen angels who destroys by means of tyrants, causes demons to be worshipped, arouses desires in priests, brings about jealousies and murders, and instigates wars. The other demon he refers to as being imprisoned in the Red Sea is the one-winged demon, Abezethibou, Moses' adversary in Egypt

15. Bethel- Bethel was important for both geographic and religious reasons. It is mentioned 72 times in the Old Testament. Bethel is the name of a village that was located on the main road running from North to South about four miles north of the Benjamite town of Mizpah. It was located where a road stretching from West to East crossed the central hills from Jericho and went through the valley of Aijalon to the coastal plain. This road between Jericho and Bethel was followed by the invading Israelites after their conquest of Jericho. With the continuation of the road through Aijalon it marked the boundary between the tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin.

16.  The Book of Life- is mentioned in several Revelations as well as other portions of the Bible. It is believed that everything a person does during their lifetime is recorded in these books. On the Day of Judgment the life of that person is reviewed in the Book of Life and they are judged accordingly.

17. Bread Cast upon Waters- "cast your bread on many waters" has a few different messages; however, the most abundantly found explanation is that it implicates to people that no one man knows what tomorrow is wing to encompass so we must carefully plan for the future. This phrase is also meant to encourage good nature in the sense that when one might need benevolence for himself, then shall be provided.

18. Burning Bush- God utilized the burning bush to talk to Moses. He promised Moses that he would deliver Israel from Egypt just as he had promised. God was faithful and rescued the nation of Israel from the Pharaoh.

19. Cabala- The word Kabalah means tradition. It has been around for more than 2000 years and has many different spellings. It is a part of Jewish spirituality. It is derived from things like nature, the creation, the foundation and fate of the soul, and has the tasks of human beings. Kabalah is only taught by a devout few because of devotional, mystical and magical studies. Kabalah is a branch-off of Judaism. You can find Kabalah in the book of Ezekiel.

20. Caiaphas- Joseph Caiaphas was the high priest of Jerusalem who, according to Biblical accounts, sent Jesus to Pilate for his execution. The high priest had another, more controversial function in first-century Jerusalem: serving as a sort of Hasan between Roman authority and the Jewish population. Caiaphas's motives in turning Jesus over to Pilate are a subject of speculation. Some historians suggest that he had little choice. Others argue that Caiaphas saw Jesus as a threat to the existing religious order. He might have believed that if Jesus wasn't restrained or even executed that the Romans might end their relative tolerance of Jewish institutions (Matthew 26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13,14,24,28; Acts 4:6).

21. Canaan - Canaan was the son of Ham (one of the three sons of Noah). One night, after planting a vineyard, Noah became drunk and lay uncovered in his tent. Ham saw his father’s nakedness and did not attempt to cover him up. His two brothers, without looking at their father's nakedness, covered Noah and let him rest. Once Noah awoke, he learned that Ham did not cover him as he should of causing him to curse Canaan, Ham's son. Noah cursed Canaan to be a slave to his brothers. Canaan had eleven sons. His eldest son, Zidon, became the leader of the Sidonians and the Phoenicians.

22. Chariot of Fire & Elijah - Elijah was a Hebrew prophet. Elijah's mission was to destroy the worship of foreign gods and to restore exclusive loyalty to God. Elijah did not die but he was summoned by the Lord up to the Heavens. Elijah was traveling with his servant, Elisha, to distant lands when all of a sudden a chariot of fire and horses of fire appeared and separated Elijah and Elisha, carrying Elijah to the Heavens in a whirlwind. Elisha took the place of his master and became a prophet.

23. Coat of many colors and Joseph-As the youngest of seven sons Joseph was favored by his father. His father gave Joseph a coat of many colors as a gift, and his brothers grew envious. They planned to kill Joseph by leaving him in a pit; after which, they would tell their father that he was attacked by a wild beat with only his tom and blood stained coat of many colors remaining. However, while carrying out the plan of Joseph's death a band of merchants travel past and take Joseph with them to Egypt. Joseph later becomes a chief leader of Egypt because he interprets the pharaoh's dream. When Joseph's brothers come to Egypt in search of food Joseph gives them raiment, but they do not recognize him. They are shocked when they learn his identity and his father later greets Joseph with joy. Joseph continues to treat his brothers with kindness despite their past efforts to take his life.

24. Crown of thorns- Jesus Christ was being mocked when the crown of thorns was placed on his head and pressed down with boards. Mocked as the king of the Jews, he died on the cross wearing the crown.

25. Daniel in the lions' den­- A prophet who disagreed with his king’s command of the captivity of the Jews in Babylon, so much so that he prayed to his God against it. He was thrown in the lion’s den to be killed because of it, but an angel from God protected him and got him out without a scratch the next day.

26. David- A small Israelite who grew up as a shepherd. He wanted to fight Goliath, the huge Philistine warrior feared by other Israelites, so he asked the king (Saul) for permission to do so. David killed Goliath by flinging a stone at his forehead. King Saul was so impressed that he gave David command of the army. King Saul eventually got jealous of him and tried to kill him, forcing David to run away for many years. When Saul died David was made king, something he was good at except for certain downfalls, such as his affair with Bathsheba. David killed Bathsheba’s husband so he could marry her. The Gospels believe that Jesus descended from David. The House of David included Judah, and Solomon and the subsequent kings of Israel.

27. Day of Judgment- The day that Jesus Christ judges the whole race of Adam without a single exception. After the resurrection, Christ will judge on the standard of God's law as revealed to men.

28. Deuteronomy- The fifth book of the Hebrew Bible, also the fifth book of the Christian Old Testament. Its Hebrew name is Devarim ????? ("words"), which comes from the opening phrase "Eleh ha-devarim" ("These are the words..."). It contains a second statement of Mosaic Law.

29. East of Eden- A book written by John Steinbeck that has a biblical allusion to the story of Cain and Abel. In the book, Charles and Adam correspond to Cain and Abel, respectively and the entire plot of the story follows the biblical story. The book also contains other biblical references such as the ill earned inheritance that the brothers received, which is an allusion to original sin.

30. Ecclesiastes- A book in the Old Testament written by King Solomon. The word Ecclesiastes comes from the Hebrew word Qohelet, which means preacher. In the first line of the book it says, "vanity of vanities; all is vanity" which means that striving in vain, because in the end we all die, and none of our accomplishments nor our character will change our fate. He argues that all of the good things in life should be enjoyed, but he also notes that God's law must be followed whether it brings joy or sorrow.

31. Jacob & Esau- Jacob and Esau were twin brothers, with Esau being the older one. They were rivals from birth. A story of them is about a time when Esau was at the point of death and was so hungry he begged Jacob for some pottage. Jacob told him that he would trade Esau the pottage for Esau's birthright. Esau was going to die if he didn't get the food, so he traded away his birthright to his brother for the pottage. Rebekah (their mother), always liked Jacob more while Isaac (their father) liked Esau more. It was tradition back then for the eldest son to get the blessing of dominions from their father, but Isaac was losing his eyesight by this time, so Rebekah tricked him. She put goat's hair on Jacob's neck and hands to be more hairy like Jacob (he was very hairy!), so Jacob would get the blessing over Esau. Jacob ended up getting the blessing and Esau despised him for that.

32. Exodus- Exodus is the second book of the Bible. The word Exodus is Greek and means departure. The book is called Exodus because it is about the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt.

33. Feet of clay- This is in reference to an immense image in Nebuchadnezzar's dream (ruler of the ancient Babylonian Empire) and more specifically to Daniel 2:41-43, "And whereas you beheld the feet and the toes to be partly of molded clay of a potter and partly of iron, the kingdom itself will prove to be divided... "Daniel had explained to King Nebuchadnezzar that he represented the image's head of gold, that the there would be a succession of world powers, the seventh and last being a dual world power (the Anglo­-American world power) descending from the sixth (Rome) "strong like iron" but with toes of the feet part iron part clay. Daniel 2:43 reads, "Whereas you beheld iron mixed with clay, they will come to be mixed with the offspring of mankind, but they will not prove to be sticking together....just as iron is not mixing with clay." Some would question whether this would refer to the diverse composition of the populations of both the United States and Britain.

34. Fishers of men- Matthew 4:19, "And he said to them: "Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men." Upon arriving in Galilee, the anointed Jesus had proclaimed to the city to "repent" because the "kingdom of the heavens has drawn near." Jesus then calls two men, Simon Peter and his brother Andrew, to become "fishers of men." Jesus along with Peter, Andrew, and two other men go ''preaching the good news of the kingdom" and ''teaching in their synagogues." They become "fishers of men" in the sense that they are gathering people of the nations to hear the good news of the kingdom. This illustration was fitting because the four men were fishermen in actuality.

35. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse - The four horsemen appear when the Lamb (Jesus) opens the first four seals of a scroll with seven seals. As each of the first four seals are opened a different colored horse and its rider is seen by the apostle John as described in Rev 6: 1-8. First seal is opened: a white horse appears, its rider held a bow (conquest). Second seal is opened: a red horse appears, its rider holds a sword (war). Third seal is opened: a black horse appears,  its rider holds a pair of scales (famine). Fourth seal is opened: a pale horse appears, its rider is called Death.

36. Gabriel- "Fortitudo Dei", one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible. Thus he is throughout the angel of the Incarnation and of Consolation, and so in Christian tradition Gabriel is ever the angel of mercy while Michael is rather the angel of judgment. At the same time, even in the Bible, Gabriel is, in accordance with his name, the angel of the Power of God, and it is worth while noting the frequency with which such words as "great", "might", "power", and "strength" occur in the passages referred to above.

37. Genesis- A beginning; the origin of something. Genesis comes from the Greek word for "to be born." The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Old Testament), which relates God's creation of the world. This collection of writings is sacred to both Jews and Christians.

38. Gethsemane- a painful ordeal; a place of anguish or suffering. The word itself means "oil press" in Greek. At the foot of the Mount of Olives outside Jerusalem, The Garden of Gethsemane was the place where Christ prayed after the Last Supper on the night Of his betrayal and arrest: "Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder" (Matthew 26:36). According to one tradition, it is believed that Mary was buried in Gethsemane.

39. Gideon- is when God would take weak, humble, sometimes fearful people and use them to do wonderful things.

 40. Goliath- A giant over nine feet tall. He was well known for his size and the Fact that he was killed by David who was the size of an ordinary man.

41. Good Samaritan- Someone who assists others, perhaps someone of a different race or background. In the Bible the Good Samaritan, a traditional enemy of the Hebrews, stopped to help a Jewish man who had been mugged and beaten and left for dead on the side of the road.

42. Gospel- Holy books containing Christ's words and deeds. It comes from the Anglo- Saxon go (good) and spell (to tell). There are some fifty titles of such works known to us.

43. Holy Grail- The Holy Grail is generally considered to be the cup from which Christ drank at the Last Supper and the one used by Joseph of Arimathea to catch his blood as he hung on the cross. The quest for the 'grail' was the highest spiritual pursuit.

44. Haman- Haman is known in bible history from the book of Esther. Haman favored the minister of Ahasuerus. He commanded that all Jews be put to death. Esther interceded for her people, and had Haman hung on the gallows he had set up for Mordecai who had betrayed.

45. Herod the Great - (73-4 BCE) was the pro-Roman king of the small Jewish state in the last decades before the Common Era. He started his career as a general, but the Roman statesman Mark Antony recognized him as the Jewish national leader. During a war against the Parathions, Herod was removed from the scene, but the Roman Senate made him king and gave him soldiers to seize the throne. As 'friend and ally of the Romans' he was not a truly independent king; however, Rome allowed him a domestic policy of his own. Although Herod tried to respect the pious feeling of his subjects, many of them were not content with his rule, which ended in terror. His sons succeeded him.

46. House Divided- Refers to the twelve tribes of the Hebrews. In the prophecies of the Bible they are mentioned to show the end of the world. These tribes will divide against each other.

47. Inherit the Wind - A 1960’s play based on events that happened in 1925. It was a twelve-day trial between the state of Tennessee and John Thomas Scopes; at issue was a state law that banned the teaching of evolution, and a Dayton teacher who knowingly went against that law.

48. Isaac and Abraham- A test of faith; God told Abraham to take his only son Isaac to the land of Moriah and offer him as a burnt offering to God. As Abraham raised his knife to sacrifice Isaac an angel called to him and told him to stop, and showed him a ram in a bush that they could use as an offering.

49. Isaiah- Isaiah was the closest man to God. Furthermore, he was a chosen prophet, who was told to be a messenger of the word God. Isaiah was a very spiritual man and he took his job very seriously.

50. Jacob- Jacob was known for deceiving his brother Easu to receive is father, Isaac, blessing before his death. Hoping to escape his brother's anger Jacob ran away. Years later when Jacob decided to come back home he was stopped by an angel who he fought all night. The angel forgave Jacob for his sin and granted him the name Israel and Jacob later became the founder of the nation of Israel.

51. Jehovah- Jehovah or Yahweh is considered to be the proper name of god in the Old Testament. This name also appears in several Jewish scriptures.

52. Jephthah’s daughter- The daughter to a war leader named Jephthah. Before entering a war against Ammon, he made a vow to God that in exchange for victory, he would sacrifice the first person he meets when he returns home. Jephthah's only daughter, whose name is unknown, was the first to greet her father and bravely honored her father's vow and was sacrificed.

53. Jericho- Jericho was a great city that the Israelites were trying to conquer. The city, however, was surrounded on all sides by immense walls. God told Joshua to have the Israelites walk around the walls seven times and give a great shout while the trumpets blast. They obeyed and by faith the walls of Jericho fell down; subsequently, the Israelites conquered the city.

54. Jezebel- At one time she was the queen of Samaria. She was wicked, adulterous, and had prophets of the Lord massacred. She worshipped Baal with child sacrifices and acts of sexual immorality. She killed all but one of her grandchildren to become the ruler of Judah. She had her husband, Ahab, rebuild Jericho after God had commanded it to remain desolate. The prophecy of her death was fulfilled: She was thrown down, trampled by horses, and eaten by dogs so that only her skull, hands, and feet remained.

55. Job - was an upstanding man of God. He was so righteous that Satan tempted him to see how true to his faith he would be after all his possessions were taken away. He also is known for his statement "I know my redeemer lives" (Job 19:25).

56. John the Baptist- was known for preaching and baptizing in the desert. He was also good friends with Jesus, and baptized him as well. John died by beheading, because of his faith.

57.  Jonah - Jonah was a man who did not want to become a prophet. God created a storm that caused him to be thrown from his ship. A whale swallowed Jonah and then released him onto land.

58. Joshua - He was chosen by god to lead the Israelites after Moses past away. His strengths were strong leadership skills, reliability, and being a man of action. His weakness was his trust in people. He was known to trust people too easily. He can be found in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua.

71. The Massacre of the Innocents- the Massacre of the Innocents is an order of all male children in Bethleham, under the age of two to be murdered. The order was given by Roman King Harod of Judea.

72. Messiah- In Judaism, the Messiah is referred to as a person appointed by God to lead His people to help Rome with their problems.

73. Mount of Olives- Overlooking Jerusalem, the Mount of Olives is the place where Jesus would pray and spend a lot of time. He would bring his disciples there to teach them. After the crucifixion, resurrection and appearing to the disciples it is said that Jesus returned to the Mount of Olives and ascended into Heaven.

74. Nebuchadnezzar- was amongst the most powerful kings to have ruled Babylon. He married the daughter of Cyaxares, which made the Media and Babylonian dynasties unite. Noah and the flood- God told Noah to build an arc to hold at least two of every animal and himself. He was upset by man's ways of living; therefore, made it rain for forty days and nights. As a result, all he humans and animals not sheltered by the ark were drowned.

76. Olive Branch- It is known as a sign of peace. During the flood, Noah sent a dove off the ark to see if it would find land to rest on: however, the dove only returned to Noah. A week later, Noah sent the dove off again. And the bird came back with an olive branch in its mouth. Noah then knew the water was leaving.

77. Pearls Before Swine- An adaptation of a saying of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount. The entire passage reads, "Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you." Basically, to "cast pearls before swine" is to share something of value with those who will not appreciate it.

78. Pharisees- A member of an ancient Jewish cult that stressed strict explanation and observance of the Mosaic Law in both its spoken and written form. During persecutions of Antiochus the Pharisees became the most rigid defenders of the Jewish religion and traditions.

79. Philistines- People of Philistia, a country on the coast of the Mediterranean coast. The Philistines were enemies of the Jews throughout the Old Testament.

80. Potter’s Field- Refers to the Earth, God being the potter. Jesus purchased the world­-field, both the clay (men's bodies) and the treasure (the spirits of men) in it by spilling his own blood. Corinthians(Corinthians 6: 20) The Pharisees took the money given by Judas and purchased the Potter's (God's)field indicating that His true priest, Jesus, had indeed purchased the earth-field (Matthew 27:3-8) And there they bury the broken clay-vessels (men's bodies which Jesus smashed with his rod of iron).

81. Prodigal Son - One of the best known stories of Jesus. The story refers to the son who returns home after spending all his fortunes. The term" prodigal son" is also used to refer to a dependent who has not lived up to the expectations of those who have launched him onto society.

82. Proverb- A terse saying, most proverbs express basic truth. Basic rule of conduct and can be also known as “maxim". A proverb depending on how it is used can also be called an aphorism.

83. Render onto Caesar- While trying to trick Jesus, the Pharisees asked him if it was right to pay taxes to Caesar. Jesus responded by asking to see denarius (money) and told them that since it was Caesar's face and inscription on the coin they should "... render unto Caesar what is Caesar's and unto God what is God's.'"

84. Ruth - The Moabite daughter-in-law of the biblical figure Naomi who lived in the violent times of the judges. She is essentially a foreigner who chooses Naomi's people and Naomi's God. She, in turn becomes a part of the lineage of David.

85. Sackcloth and Ashes- made of coarse, black goat's hair, which is customarily worn by mourners or as a sign of deep repentance and humility. To cover the head with ashes was symbolic for self-disgust and humiliation.

86. Salt of the earth- represents the purity of humans on earth. Honesty, worthiness and reliability are the positive influences that are supposed to change and not savor the earth. People who try to change this corrupt earth and not savor it are the salt of the earth.

88. Seven Deadly Sins - The every day sins we commit and are unaware of such as Pride, Envy, Gluttony, Lust, Anger, Greed, and Sloth

87. Sermon on the Mount - a sermon by Jesus of Nazareth preached to his disciples and a large crowd on a mountain on the north end of the Sea of Galilee. Commentary to the Ten Commandments, to many contains the central view of Christian discipleship.

89. Sodom and Gomorrah­- The two cities were burned down and destroyed by God because of two sins that flowed through the civilization. (The sins are known today for homosexuality and rape.) When angels came to the leader, Lot, and warned of the future strife, he refused to make a compromise and the city was cursed, never to be found again.

90. Solomon's Judgment­- King Solomon was known for his intelligence and honesty. One day when two mothers came to him, they announced the baby one was holding was both of their own. With a quick placement of a knife towards the baby, as only one of the mothers screamed, Solomon made his judgment of who the true mother was.

91. Talmud- The collection of ancient Rabbinic writings consisting of the Mishnah and the Germara, consulting the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism.

92. Thirty Pieces of Silver- The money Judas Iscariot received for betraying Jesus to the authorities. He later threw the money into the Temple of Jerusalem, and the chief priests bought the "potter's field" with it, to be used as a cemetery for foreigners.

93. Turn the Other Cheek- Then they came up and laid hands upon Jesus and seized him. And behold, one of those who were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest, and cut off his ear. Then Jesus said to him, "Put your sword back into its place; for all who take the sword will perish by the sword." (Matthew 26.51-52) Explanation: A famous instruction from Jesus Christ, that has brought controversy in the Christian way of living. It's the opposite of saying like "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth". It is simply saying that if attacked by "religious prosecutors" we should not fight back; however, it is allowed towards common criminals.

91. Via Dolorosa- "the path of sorrow" Christ took on his way to his crucifixion. Jesus' Via Dolorosa is said to have ended in the Old City of Jerusalem

95.  Moses- While he led the children of Israel from Egypt to Canaan he grew frustrated. Since they were beginning to worship other gods, it became difficult to lead them. Moses then went to the mountain and spoke to the Lord, who gave him Ten Commandments in order to lead the people to their freedom.

96. Vulgate Bible- The Vulgate Bible is simply a common translation of the Bible; a version made for Roman Catholics that has been around now for over one and a half millennia. People would hear passages from it every morning at church, but the majority of the people between 382 and  05 CE did not understand Latin. Before 1450, when Gutenberg printed this text, copies were very rare and expensive. It is still one of the most important Latin texts.

97. Wages of Sin- There are seven sins that have been documented in the Bible. They are lust, envy, greed, pride, gluttony, angry and sloth. Lust is a pleasurable carving for the body, envy is the desire to dislike, and greed is the desire for wealth and the ignorance of appreciation. Gluttony is a desire to consume more than one desire, angry is bottled up emotions and sloth is a lazy person. The wages of those sins is death.

98. The Wailing Wall- is located in the City of Jerusalem. To the Jewish people it is a sacred place of prayer and pilgrimage. Its history and traditions date back from about the 2 century B.C.

99. Weeping and gnashing of teeth- means that the wicked, will be cast into the fiery furnace, Jesus linked such weeping and gnashing to being outside of the Kingdom. Jesus will send forth his angels, and they will collect all things that cause stumbling and people who are doing lawlessness, and they will pitch them into the fiery furnace. That is where their weeping and the gnashing of their teeth will be. At that time the righteous ones will shine as brightly as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. ", Luke 7:1-10; Matthew 8:5-13; Acts 10:28.

100. "Wither thou goest I will go" - This entails the story of Ruth and Naomi. Found in Bible's Old Testament, Ruth 1: 16, the story is of a determined daughter-in-law named Ruth and her love for her mother-in-law Naomi. Naomi had two sons Mahlon and Chili on who wedded Rut and Orpah. Soon after the marriages the sons died. This was a great loss for Naomi. With nothing else to do, Naomi decided to return to her homeland. Naomi gave her daughters-in-law the permission to return to their family but Ruth decided to cleave with her instead. "For wither thou goest, I will go and wither thou lodgest, I will lodge". When Naomi realized that Ruth was steadfast minded, they journeyed to the land id Bethlehem.

101. Absalom - Absalom was the third son of King David. When his older brother Amnon raped his sister Tamar, whom he loved, Absalom vowed to get revenge. Two years later at the Shearing celebration, Absalom had his servants kill Amnon. Fearing consequences, he fled.  He returned four years later and started a rebellion, in an attempt to take control of what he thought was rightfully his. He succeeded, but in a battle sometime later he was killed by one of his father's generals. Strangely, his father mourned the loss, wishing it had been him instead of Absalom.

102. Adam's Rib- When God created Adam, the first man,  he then took one of Adam's ribs and used it to create the first woman on Earth, Eve.

103. Ahab- A great king of Israel who married Jezebel. His reign is known mostly for the discontent in the religious aspects of the times. His wife's rival was Elijah, the champion of Israel's god.

104. Apocalypse- Refers to a number of anonymous Jewish and Christian texts from the second century B.C. containing symbolic and prophetic information about the end of the world and the salvation of the righteous. Also called the Book of Revelation in the Bible.

105. Apocrypha- Meaning "Hidden things", apocryphical books in the Bible are categorized into two sections: texts included in some canonical version of the Bible at one point in time, and other texts of Biblical nature which weren't canonical. In Greek, apo (away) combined with kryptein (hide) come together to connote an idea of "closed" or "hidden", apocrypha. Apocryphon, the singular noun, apocryphal the adjective, and apocrypha the plural noun can also be used to describe certain classes of religiously oriented writings.




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